A review of solar still technology and potable water supply in remote and developing areas is presented. Considering the number of condensation surfaces, solar still’s operation is grouped as single-effect condensation and multi-effect condensation. Each of these groups could either be passive or active depending on whether the solar still's operation is self-reliant (for passive), or is assisted by external energy sources, in other words, subjected to a forcing function (for active). The performances, applications and influential factors for the selection of solar still designs are reported. Solar stills with multi-effect condensation generally have improved freshwater yield compared to solar stills with single-effect condensation. This is due to the application of the latent heat of condensation in the subsequent effects. Similarly, active solar stills have improved freshwater yield and efficiency compared to passive solar stills. They are also more complex in design compared to passive solar stills due to the configuration of the system. Accordingly, active solar stills with multi-effect condensation are better suited for commercial applications and areas with high load demands. On the other hand, passive solar stills with single-effect condensation are simple in construction and easier to install thus, they are better suited for domestic applications and areas of low and medium load demands. To further improve the performance of existing solar stills, more research work is necessary to enable them compete favourably with conventional distillation systems as a viable alternative.
This paper examines the long run relationship among non-renewable energy consumption, oil prices economic performance using annual time series data covering the period 1980-2013. The trend of production and consumption of non-renewable energy, oil prices and the real GDP over years was depicted: Augmented Dickey-Fuller Unit Root Method, Engel Granger Co-integration test and the OLS estimation technique were employed in the course of the study. The result indicates that there is long run relationship between the Real GDP and the consumption of the non-renewable energy (Coal, Oil and Natural gas) and the oil prices in Nigeria but in the short run, the consumption of coal and natural gas doesn’t have significant effect on the real GDP. It was however recommended that the production of coal and crude oil should be increased so as to increase the Real GDP of Nigeria.
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the most critical crop in Indonesia. Problems encountered to increase rice production are pests attack mainly a brown planthopper. Silica as a biochemical for rice resistance to brown planthopper attack. This study examines the silica content of several local rice varieties and the correlation between the silica content and the brown planthopper attack. This research was conducted in Karanglo village, Klaten Regency Polanharjo and the Research Institute of Agricultural Environment in Jakenan Pati. Materials used local aromatic rice (Rojolele, Mentikwangi, Mentiksusu, Pandanwangi) and non-aromatic (Rojopusur, Padi Merah, Srikiti, Saudah, Slegreng) and IR 64 as comparison variety. The results showed that the generative phase silica content was higher than the vegetative phase. The highest silica content on the vegetative phase was found in IR 64 variety at 19.02% and the lowest was found in Srikiti varieties at 11.02%. The highest generative phase silica content was found in Srikiti varieties of 28.09% and the lowest was found in Rojolele variety of 15.47%. The increase in silica content significantly reduce the brown planthopper population.
L’objectif de cet article est de montrer les fondements théoriques de la finance islamique à travers trois réflexions. Une première qui met en évidence la source religieuse de la finance islamique. Une seconde réflexion qui montre les soubassements théoriques de l’économie islamique. Une troisième réflexion, en fin, qui rattache les pratiques financières islamiques aux règles et de l’Islam. En effet, La finance islamique est le résultat d’une évolution ancrée dans l’histoire des pays musulmans. Les justifications théoriques de cette finance sont profondément liées à des lois purement religieuses. L’Islam comme religion a manifestement guidé les comportements individuels et collectifs des musulmans pour penser un système économique au sein duquel la finance islamique s’est parfaitement concrétisée. Le recours à des principes de conformité religieux est une spécificité marquante de la finance islamique. Décomposés en deux types, les principes (négatifs et positifs) sont à la base de toute transaction financière islamique.
Leveraging high-quality demands of cognitive communication on auto-negotiation places much demand on efficient machine learning technique. Cognitive agents change transmission/reception parameters to communicate efficiently during cognition. Reconfigurable Communication system (RCS) are capable of implementing experience replays to achieve high-quality network demand whenever agents perceive network conditions. Engaging peering technique to offer dynamism in frequency selection, spectrum negotiation, adaptations for engaging planning, decision and actions, reconfiguration is achieved via cognition. co-operative communication in RCS places much demand on accurate spectrum-sensing. With single agent, passive algorithms are implemented sharing sensed-information, but learning becomes pivotal process while achieving end-to-end goal over shared-spectrum. For this reason, reinforced learning is demanded in cognitive systems for learning environmental parameters to objectively meet application requirements of dynamic spectrum access (DSA). To this purpose, Markov model is presented using investigative analysis of sequential processes to demonstrate reinforced decisions required during cognition. For optimal performance and desired returns over pooled spectrum, Markov processes enable multiple agents participation to offer cumulative rewards of faster/active decisions rather than passively implemented decision with single agent. Reinforced learning (RL) over shared-spectrum facilitates continuous learning via experience replays. Better reward, achievable with multiple agents also guarantee profitable information-sharing in pooled-spectrum. Also, co-operatively communicating hosts enable active decisions to enhance network-wide performance. Therefore, RL offer continuous learning beneficial to reconfigured systems. In addition, facilitated thorough experience replays, evidently implemented for active learning and suitable decisions, RL is preferred deep learning technique guaranteed with machine learning efficiency needed for cognition performances in RCS.
COVID-19 brings a new alarming situation to World when infected cases hike drastically. The infected cases show numerous symptoms include flu, fever, cough etc. The confirmed mode of transmission due to physical contact introduced, lockdown as the first method to control. After restricting people's contact, significant decreases in cases were observed. However, the relaxation in lockdown brought the graph of infected cases up again. Knowing, prevention of the virus by following standard SOP’s fewer people caught the virus. The study addresses and analyzes the data of Karachi, Central district for the months of December 2020 and January 2021. It is observed that cases sharply decrease by 25.97% in preceding months. Homemakers are infected more in all sectors. Considering infected patients, not as carriers, it is believed that a closed working environment could cause the virus to transmit virus effectively.
Ce papier vise à mettre l’accent sur les différents instruments utilisés par la finance islamique. A travers les principes fondamentaux, la finance islamique offre une diversité de produits qui sont considérés comme une alternative aux contrats basés sur les intérêts employés par les banques classiques. Nous allons essayer d’étaler en détail les principales techniques utilisées pour chaque produit tout en précisant les contours théoriques et religieux qui président la conception et la construction d’un environnement financiers interdépendant. En la finance islamique, il est strictement interdit de verser ou de recevoir des intérêts, l’argent doit être utilisé comme moyen d’échange pour créer une valeur économique réelle où il peut générer un rendement via des investissements dans des transactions et activités commerciales conformes à la Charia. Il existe différents types de contrats conformes à la Charia qui peuvent être utilisés par les institutions islamiques pour structurer les produits et les services financiers afin de répondre à divers besoins exprimés par les clients et les entreprises.
ABSTRACT Blood is a liquid (consisting of 80%90% of water) playing a role in the transport of food, oxygen (O2), metabolic waste, and carbon dioxide from cells to cells of humans. The pH of the blood in the human body in a normal state is 7.357.451). The purpose of the present study was to distinguish the pH of blood serum samples without ultrasonic versus with ultrasonic cavitation using a Piezoelectric transducer at 48 kHz, 10 Vpp, 5 Vdc, for 30 minutes. There are gaps in the current research: (1) During exercise, there are factors of endurance, fitness, and recovery with increased quality of human life; (2) Drinking is an ingredient containing sugar (carbohydrates) that adds energy and has a pH that tends to normalize the body’s condition between alkaline pH (coffee, coconut water, and alkaline water) and acidic pH (arak bali, ciu, tuak-legen); (3) There are drinks that contain microbes (bacteria, herbal medicine, dairy milk, Yakult, sugar cane water and sugar cane water exposed to ultrasonic cavitation process using a Piezoeletric transducer). Cavitation is the decomposition of water into hydrogen (H2) and O2, so as to increase the pH of sugar cane water2). These gaps represented the basis for selecting blood samples for ultrasonic cavitation using a Piezoelectric transducer. Results showed that the average pH of blood serum without exposure to ultrasonic Piezoelectric transducer was 8.67 and the average pH of blood serum with ultrasonic exposure to ultrasonic Piezoelectric transducer was 10. Keywords: Blood, pH, ultrasonic, Piezoelectric