After the implementation of Educational Sector Development Program (ESDP I, 2003) special attention has been given to education system in Ethiopia especially in the Ethiopian Institute of Textile and Fashion Technology (EiTEX), Bahir Dar University. Before ESDP I, the ways of teaching and learning were mainly based on behaviourist approaches. These approaches are mainly focused on learners themselves. Therefore, student-centred and active learning became the slogans in the education system in Ethiopia. This study investigates constructivist learning implementation in Ethiopia specifically in EiTEX, Bahir Dar University. So, the researcher selected to investigate the mostly used methods (question-answer, individual and group-work) considering constructivism in EiTEX. This paper applies descriptive quantitative research method and an explorative design is used to address the research questions. The study interpreted the quantitative findings to provide a comprehensive understanding of assessing student’s prior knowledge, differentiating what is already known and what should be learnt, changing student’s pre-concept in the context of new knowledge and reflection on learning. Findings from this research show that around half of the teachers implement perceive the mentioned methods in line with constructivism while remaining teachers still implement perceive to use these methods as a traditional way of teaching. Moreover, teachers seem to be more constructivists in perception and applying individual work method as compared to group-work activities. The result in this study also shows that teachers who participated in pedagogical workshops answered questionnaire more in line with constructionist as compare to the teachers who did not participate in pedagogical workshops.
Every day billions of people and million of institutions communicate with each other over the Internet. In the past two years, the number of people using the Internet has increased very fast, today this number has exceeded 4 billion and this increase is continuing rapidly. Opposite to this development, the number of attacks made on the Internet are increasing day by day. Against these attacks, there are two basic methods used to detect the attacks in order to ensure the CIA(confidentiality, integrity, availability) of information security; identification based on signature, and detection based on anomaly. In this study, it is aim to review the literature and to conclude that which IDS is quick and effectively by means of machine learning methods, reviewing machine learning algorithms that can be used to detect network anomalies, to check which dataset(Darpa98, KDD99, CAIDA,NSL-KDD, ISCX 2012, CICISD2017) will be best enough by comparing other datasets, to determine the success level of the study by comparing the results obtained in it with the studies conducted in this area, reviewing and suggested suitable algorithms by conducting extensive research on machine learning algorithms, To combine two or more machine learning algorithms to make a new one which should be more powerful or efficient and have low error rate, suggesting the appropriate dataset by performing comprehensive research on the alternatives to the dataset.
The Weibull distribution model has been employed in analyzing a ten year wind data from six chosen locations in Nigeria, three each from northern and southern settlements. The annual mean wind speeds in Sokoto, Bauchi and Lokoja are 4.33, 4.37, and 4.52m/s, respectively, while those of Owerri, Portharcourt and Abeokuta are 3.25, 3.27 and 2.76m/s respectively. The power densities on the annual scale in Sokoto, Bauchi and Lokoja are 49.14, 59.56 and 69.94W/m2, respectively, whereas those of Abeokuta, Owerri and Portharcourt are 14.22, 25.77 and 23.76W/m2 respectively. Therefore, the wind resources in most parts of Northern Nigeria is suitable for medium scale electric power generation while wind resources in most parts of southern Nigeria is only suitable for water pumping applications.
The physical and hydraulic properties of some local materials for canal lining were evaluated to ascertain their suitability for canal lining. These materials were: (i) Concrete (GC): which comprised of Cement, Sand and Granite of average sizes of between 9.0 mm and 14 mm, in a ratio of 1:2:4. (ii) Termite Mound (TM) (iii) Clay Cement (CLC) (iv) Cementitious Clay (CCL), and (v) Clay Soil (CLS). The compaction characteristics were determined using the standard Proctor compaction mound by subjecting the samples to 5, 15 and 25 hammer blows. Results showed that Concrete sample had the highest maximum dry densities; while Clay soil sample had the lowest. The highest compressive strength was obtained from Concrete (2.373 N/mm2) and the lowest from Termite Mound sample (0.315 N/mm2).The seepage losses ranged from 0.034 – 0.092 m3//m2//day for Clay soil lining, 0.045 – 0.095 m3//m2//day for Termite Mound lining, 0.021 – 0.092 m3//m2//day for Clay-Cement, 0.020 – 0.068 m3//m2//day for Burnt Cementitious Clay, and 0.020 – 0.057 m3//m2//day for Concrete lining. Though concrete, which is conventionally used for canal lining, performed better; other materials also performed adequately well. The results therefore, revealed that these materials have requisite properties for canal lining. Keywords: canal lining, compaction characteristics, dry density, local materials, seepage loss
The diet of school-aged students is of increasing interest to developing countries. In order to describe the eating habits in schools and determine the nutritional status of school-aged students, we conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study with 423 students of ages 5 to 12 years old respectively from Imara and Saint Joseph primary schools. The research results reveal that most of the students surveyed had a normal nutritional status for the two schools, 86.2% for Saint Joseph and 80.8% for IMARA. Malnutrition (severe and moderate) affects 7.0% of students in Saint Joseph and 6.4% of IMARA students Overweight and obesity affects 12.8% of Imara students compared to 6% for those in Saint Joseph. The social position of the pupils, an unbalanced and sometimes excessive diet and the systematic non-practice of physical exercise are the determining factors.
Some novel multi self-assembly [ICT] functional & their cyanines incorporating benzo[g]indolizino [1,2-c] quinolin-12-ium iodide (4a-d, 5a-d, 6a-f & 7a-f) were prepared via one-pot synthesis based on 1-(2-(3-amino-1, 4-dioxo-1,4-di[H] naphthalen-2-yl)-1-(1-ethyl-pyridin[quinolin-4(1)]-1-ium)-2-oxo-ethyl)-2-methyl-pyridin(quinolin)-1-ium iodide (2a-d & 3a-d). The new synthesized multi self-assembly [ICT] functional & their cyanines were identified by elemental & spectral analyses. The UV-visible absorption spectra of some selected dyes were investigated in 95% ethanol to investigate their photophysical characteristics.
1, 3-Bis (3-methyl-1-phenyl-pyrazolin-5-one-4-yl)- & 5, 5'-bis (pyrimidin-2, 4, 6(1H, 3H, 5H)-trione)--di-carbonyl precursors (1A, 5) were used as key intermediates consequently in the synthesis of Bis-pyrazolo[4,3-b: 3',4'-g]pyrido[2,1,6-de]quinolizin-12-ium iodide & 1,3-bis (2,4,6-tri-oxo-hexa [H] pyrimidin-5-yl)-pyridin-1-ium-iodide--di-carbonyl compounds (1C, 7) & their self-assembly [ICT] functional dyes incorporating based quinolizin-ium, oxonium-cyclic (acyclic) mero-,(2A-D, 3A,B, 4A-D, 7, 8, 9-11) and -di-carbonyl acyclic (cyclic) mero cyanine dyes (12, !3). A special attention had been focused on the spectral behaviour of such dyes to permit possible color-chemical structure relationship & criterion for their use as photosensitizes. The solvatochromic behavior and colour changes with solvents having different polarities of such dyes are observed here to permit a selection of optimal solvent when these dyes are applied as photosensitizers.
This paper shows the fundamentals of fluid mechanics necessary to understand and determine pressure losses in the system. For illustration this paper used U-type evacuated tube solar collector model with 52 Collectors units. Pressure drop calculation is done inside U pipe evacuated tube solar collector, in collector bending, in fluid Entrance and fluid Existing, due to Inclination from horizontal surface, in the manifold, due to length from storage tank to collector arrays and in tube bending also selection of pump specification from catalog
Community is the smallest type of government in the Philippines they usually call it as the Barangay. Here, authorities are headed by the Chairman and Councilors. The barangay is where all of the records of each individual living in it can be found including their health records. Each individual living on it is being take care of Barangay’s health workers, secretary and others. Barangay secretary holds the records of all person within it, while health workers holds the health record of each individual who undergo consultation and medication through public health center. Keywords Barangay, Health Record, Health Worker, K-Means
Abstract: The whole world, including Bangladesh, is going through a critical period due to the new coronavirus or Covid-19 infection. The number of victims is increasing day by day and due to this the general holiday announced by the government has been extended till August 31. This study conducted on COVID-19 and E-Education in Bangladesh: A Study on Some Selected College. Both primary and secondary data are used in this study. There is a particular focus on e-education as defined with reference to formal primary education. This paper focuses the present scenario and limitations of E-education in Bangladesh. The study also shown, different app and portal are used in e-learning. The paper identifies some problems faced in e-education system and gives some suggestion and recommendation to overcome those problems.
This paper compares the product from local refinery units otherwise called illegal refineries and the imported refined products in terms of its the flash points , density, boiling point and the relative density and they were found to be in close proximity with exception of the viscosity. The paper opines that certain level of politics has hindered the development and running of local refineries as well as capacity building of local refineries. It is imperative at this point of our development that the control of bigger institutions like NNPC be liberalized and the participation of locally developed refining technology springing up in the Niger Delta region be allowed to thrive based on the data collected which indicated similar physiochemical properties like that of the imported products with little variations. This can be appropriately refined to meet the American Petroleum Institute (API) standard. Stake holders and key players need to allow the participation of this local technology. Thus this will trigger the development of more advanced local refineries, create employment of the youths and reduce capital flight from the Nation.