Determination of the Levels of Some Heavy Metals in Three Locally Available Commercial Brands of Bottled Orange Juice Obtained from Supermarkets in Harar and Dire Dawa Towns Advisor: Tesfahun Kebede (Ph D) By: Alemayehu Nima ABSTRACT In the present work , the contents of some heavy metals including Zn, Cu, Fe, Cr, Cd and Pb in three Brands of Orange Juice samples obtained from Local supermarkets found in Harar and Dire Dawa Towns were analysed by FAAS after digestion of all samples with optimum amounts of mixtures of concentrated HNO3 and 30%H2O2 solutions. The mean (±SD) concentrations of Zn, Cu, Fe, Cr, Cd and Pb in the analyzed samples were found to be , 2.761±0.056, 2.680±0.061 ,1.730±0.017 , 0.346±0.025 , 0.241±0.031 and 0.463±0.034 ppm, respectively. The values were compared with the WHO Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) as well as with values reported in the available literature for the same metals on similar studies heavy metal contents of fruit juice. The concentrations of some of the heavy metals found in orange juice were above the safe limit recommended by WHO. The recoveries of metals were in the range 86% - 100%. And the relative standard deviations for most metals in the samples were less than 10%. A statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA) at 95% confidence level was used to test whether the variation between the mineral content of three sample means were significant or not. Key Words: Orange juice, FAAS, Heavy Metals, Dietary Intake, Toxicity of Heavy Metal
Abstract: This study demonstrated the application of biomaterial for the removal of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)).in the primary work of this study; the determination of Cr(VI) in an aqueous solution was conducted by direct UV-visible spectro-photometry. The effects of different parameters such as pH, contact time, adsorbent dose and initial concentration of an adsorbate on the adsorption of Cr(VI) were investigated. Equilibrium isotherm data were analyzed and indicated that adsorption process favored on Langmuir isotherm model. The adsorption kinetic data were described very well by the pseudo-second order model. The adsorption efficiency of biosorbent lignin on to Cr(VI) was found to be 99.23%. Therefore, lignin, which is an ecofriendly, low cost and ease of access adsorbent is expected to be feasible adsorbent for the removal of Cr(VI). Keywords: determination, hexavalent chromium, Adsorption, Lignin
Abstract The aim of this study was to analyse the distribution and abundance of benthic macroinvertebrates in the Upper Awash River. The study was conducted for three months from January 2018 to March2018, and macroinvertebrates were collected from five sites using a standard hand net. Physicochemical parameters that can affect the distribution and abundance of benthic macroinvertebrates due to water pollution were measured and analysed. A total of 14,465 individuals belonging to 33 families of aquatic insects, 5 families of the non-insect group were identified. Among all taxa, Diptera was the most abundant and diversified animals in the study area. Macroinvertebrates among the five sites showed variation in species richness, evenness and Shannon Diversity Index. The highly impacted downstream site (UAW4) had the relatively highest H-FBI index (5.15), followed by UAW5 (5.08) indicating that UAW4 and UAW5 were poorer in benthic faunal diversity than other sites. In addition, as habitat and water quality degradation increased, the number and percentage of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) decreased. Furthermore, as perturbation increased, species diversity, ETHbios index, Average Score per Taxon , and family richness were decreased, while the percentage of Chironomidae, Diptera, Dominant Taxa and Hilsenhoff Family-Level Biotic Index were increased indicating that tolerant species become abundant in UAW4 and UAW5. Based on the current study, we recommend that sustainable management of the Upper Awash River by environmental protection agencies of governmental and non-governmental organizations should take strict remedy to tackle anthropogenic activities resulting in water pollution.
Rainfall predictive models are used to find potentially valuable patterns in the data, or to predict the outcome of any event. The choice and use of predictive technique to use becomes even harder, since no technique outperforms all others over a large set of problems. It is even difficult to find the best parameter values for a specific technique, since these settings also problem dependent. Ensembles are more robust and powerful than individual models, in this thesis ensemble diversity used to solve wide range of rainfall prediction problems. The main objective of this study is appraising the potential applicability of machine learning technology and machine learning to predict rainfall using ensemble and single algorithms. The other contributions are improvements of a rule extraction technique, resulting in increased comprehensibility and more accurate result by ensemble machine learning. On the other hand, in this study the researcher used hybrid machine learning methodology. Also, the researcher used 9,543 instances with 8 selected and 10 all attributes on WEKA 3.8. In this thesis, J48, PART, MLP and IBK algorithms are used with ensemble method. In addition VB.NET 2010 is used for interface development to use the discovered knowledge. Furthermore, PART algorithm and J48 decision tree demonstrated on 10 fold cross validation method given best result rather than MLP and IBK. Ensemble PART algorithm & J48 Decision tree with selected attributes produced 95.46 % and 95.44% prediction accuracy respectively, on WEKA experimenter for one day advance prediction. However, when we used the ensemble method, boosting ensemble was given better result rather than bagging and staking. Ensemble PART algorithm for one month advance prediction using all attributes produced 95.35 % and 97.12% accuracy, on WEKA experimenter and explorer respectively. The researcher found temperature, humidity, wind speed, sunshine, month and year as the major variables to predict rainfall. Beyond this it’s possible to extend the development of the model to a longer forecast such as ten days ahead and one year ahead. The researcher recommended other researcher’s to predict other atmospheric variable like wind speed, humidity, and temperature. Furthermore, the researcher also recommended other researcher’s to include association rule discovery to found strong internal relationship among meteorological variables
This study was conceived as an attempt to determine a significant effect of interactive reading and traditional reading on vocabulary competence. The venture made into this area of inquiry was given impetus by the curiosity of the researcher of such possible effect of the 70 pupils at the MSU-ILS in Marawi City. The pupils were grouped equally into two (2) – 35 pupils which composed the interactive reading group (experimental) and another 35 pupils which composed the traditional reading (control). The researcher utilized a combination of descriptive and quantitative research methodology. The study yielded the following findings: The vocabulary competence level of the pupils in the interactive reading (experimental group) based on the pre-test was generally “fair”; while the vocabulary competence level of the pupils in the traditional reading (control) group was “good”. The vocabulary competence level of the pupils in the interactive reading (experimental group) based on the post-test was generally “good”; while the vocabulary competence level of the pupils in the traditional (control group) was also “good”. Apparently, there was a notable good increase in the vocabulary competence level of the interactive reading (experimental group). In the traditional reading (control group), there was also an increase however, only minimal. The researcher concluded that the pupils in the interactive reading (experimental group) revealed a better favor as the results proved a better vocabulary competence level. A significant gain in vocabulary demonstrated by the interactive reading pupils – that is, from the pre-test to post-test was remarkable. In fact, from an adjectival description in the pre-test which was “fair”, it turned out to be “good” in the post-test.
Rainfed farmlands is considered one of the marginalized areas in agriculture today. Different biotic and abiotic stresses along with poor access to technologies and innovations are challenging the productivity and profitability of both the farmers and the community. With this, a collaborative study between different RDIs in the Region (DA–RFO IX and SUCs) along with the selected LGUs was conducted in upland communities from 2013 to 2018 that aims to improve rural livelihoods by increasing agricultural productivity and farmer’s income. Stratified soil sampling across Region IX was conducted that resulted to the distribution of GIS-based soil fertility maps and Soil Health Cards. Integration of best-bet interventions were introduced and strengthened. Results of the techno-demo of major crops had shown a remarkable increased in crop yield of 60.10% to 65.73% and increased farm income of 92%. During the five years of implementation, farmer’s knowledge on fertilization and seed delivery system and community involvement through Farmer’s Association were enhanced. The collaborative initiatives of different RDIs (DA and SUCs) in cooperation with the LGU down to the BLGU had significant impact on the delivery of technologies to farmers. The involvement of the farming community had resulted to increased income and profitability.
This paper presents factors influencing the optimization of cash management. Cash management is more important for all businesses to strengthen financial management. Each business needs to have an adequate level of cash management to run the business. So, here the study explores the optimum utilization of cash management for small-scale businesses. Entrepreneurs need to educate about the importance of good control over cash management in order to avoid the shortage of cash or financial crises. In general, the findings are to ensure the effectiveness of cash management in order to maintain the financial sustainability of the business.
ERP systems using many business applications like accounting, billing, payroll, financing, purchasing, suppliers, and legacy applications most of these applications are designed to work isolated databases and applications, they are implemented at different platforms and different operating systems. Each program has its databases and data entry rules, which leads to frequent data entry, the high cost of operating information technology resources. The main problem is the difficulty in sharing and exchange information between ERP applications which becomes a very crucial point for business continuity. This paper introduces the most attractive solution to achieve integration between heterogonous systems and legacy systems is using Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) based Web Application to achieve integration between ERP systems.